Tag Archives: Turkey

Thanksgiving and food safety

This post has become an annual posting in hopes it will help keep you and your family safe. Food handling, thawing times, cooking time / temperatures and safe storing of any thanksgiving day food leftovers.

For some this is old information and is considered plain common sense. For others this will be their first time dealing with such a large bird and safely handling so many side dishes for one meal.
turkey
Butterball Turkey Talk provides a free service to answer your questions about proper handling, thawing and cooking Turkey.
You can reach them by telephone, email or via live chat line.
Butterball also has a informative page of FAQ’s that you may find useful.

Butterball said:
FROZEN WHOLE TURKEY
Thaw in refrigerator (not at room temperature). Place unopened turkey, breast side up, on a tray in refrigerator and follow our refrigerator thawing instructions. Allow at least 24 hours for every 4 pounds.

To thaw more quickly, place unopened turkey breast down in sink filled with cold tap water. Allow 30 minutes per pound. Change water every 30 minutes to keep surface of turkey cold.

When thawed, keep in refrigerator up to 4 days until ready to cook.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) has a nice and very informative fact sheet as well as a useful PDF file on the safe handling, cooking, Storage and re-heating of Turkey.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) A Consumer Guide to Safely Roasting a Turkey USDA’s information applies to any poultry, Turkey, Chicken, Duck, Goose and so on that you may plan on cooking and serving to your family.

For more information about food safety, call: USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline 1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854). 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday or
E-mail: mphotline.fsis@usda.gov Or “Ask Karen,” FSIS’ Web-based automated response system – available 24/7 at http://www.fsis.usda.gov.

Hints:
Allow 1 pound of turkey per person.

Thawing In the Refrigerator (40 °F or below)
Allow approximately 24 hours for every 4 to 5 pounds
4 to 12 pounds 1 to 3 days
12 to 16 pounds 3 to 4 days
16 to 20 pounds 4 to 5 days
20 to 24 pounds 5 to 6 days
Roasting Time
4 to 8 pounds (breast) 1½ to 3¼ hours
8 to 12 pounds 2¾ to 3 hours
12 to 14 pounds 3 to 3¾ hours
14 to 18 pounds 3¾ to 4¼ hours
18 to 20 pounds 4¼ to 4½ hours
20 to 24 pounds 4½ to 5 hours

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) Alternate methods to cook Turkey / poultry Grilling a Turkey, Covered Gas Grill, Covered Charcoal Grill, Smoking a Turkey, Deep Fat Frying a Turkey.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) Basics: Safe Cooking Turkey A PDF file. Great 1 page tip sheet on cooking Turkey / Poultry.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) Turkey Roasting Chart Everything you will ever need to know about Roasting your Turkey.
Hint:
Reheating Your Turkey
In the Oven
Set the oven temperature no lower than 325 °F.
Reheat turkey to an internal temperature of 165 °F. Use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature.
To keep the turkey moist, add a little broth or water and cover.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) Safe Minimum Cooking Temperatures Use this chart and a food thermometer to ensure that meat, poultry, seafood, and other cooked foods reach a safe minimum internal temperature.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People. Safely Prepare Your Holiday Meal Important cooking information to providing Safe food preparation information.

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Cranberry Sauce – For your special holiday season table

harvesting cranberry's
New crop cranberry’s will soon be arriving in your local supermarket. Purchase cranberry’s early in the season to insure you are getting the best and freshest berries.

Cranberry sauce goes well with any type poultry or water fowl as well as many pork dishes.

Galaxy Class Cranberry Sauce

Cranberry’s – Tangerine – Cinnamon – Cloves – Nutmeg with or without added sugar, it’s still the best Cranberry sauce this side of Venus and Mars.

You can add either white cane sugar or dark brown sugar. Make this sauce as sweet or tart as you like.
If you like the tart bite of cranberry’s then omit most of the sugar.

If you do add sugar, start with 1/2 the amount given in this recipe and continue tasting and add sugar until you get the amount of sweetness that is to your liking.

Wash cranberries and tangerine’s well. Dump cranberries into a bowl of cold water, pick out any damaged berries.

In a large sauce pan add 1/2 cup of freshly squeezed tangerine juice with pulp, be sure to remove any seeds that may get into your tangerine juice. [Save tangerine rinds].
Note: Oranges are Not the same thing as tangerines! If your use oranges it will produce a totally different tasting sauce.

Add 1/2 cup cold water
Bring to a slow simmer
Add cranberries
Wrap in cheese cloth: 4 whole cloves, 1 stick cinnamon, 1 anise star add to pot
1/8 teaspoon grated fresh nutmeg
3/4 cup dark brown sugar – Start with 1/3 cup sugar – add more as needed to your taste
Simmer 5 minutes Note: stir pot often
Decide at this point by tasting if more sugar is needed.
Adding sugar until it is as sweet as you like.

At some point cranberries will start to pop open, this is a good thing, stir to prevent sticking to bottom of your sauce pan.

Cranberry sauce is ready when all or at least most of the cranberries have popped open and the juice has become very thick.

Grate 1 table spoon of tangerine rind into mix.

Remove from heat, remove whole cloves, star anise and cinnamon stick. ‘Carefully’ spoon cranberry sauce into hot sterile canning jar(s), seal and allow to cool.
Under Refrigeration this sauce will keep for several weeks.

Better yet process in boiling water bath for 20 minutes. Remove from water bath, allow to cool, check jar for proper seal. Will store well for 2 years or more in a cool dark pantry.

This sauce can be placed in zip-lock freezer bags and stored frozen for a year or more.

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Thanksgiving Food Safety

turkey
Butterball Turkey Talk provides a free service to answer your questions about proper handling, thawing and cooking Turkey.
You can reach them by telephone, email or via live chat line.
Butterball also has a informative page of FAQ’s that you may find useful.

Butterball said:
FROZEN WHOLE TURKEY
Thaw in refrigerator (not at room temperature). Place unopened turkey, breast side up, on a tray in refrigerator and follow our refrigerator thawing instructions. Allow at least 24 hours for every 4 pounds.

To thaw more quickly, place unopened turkey breast down in sink filled with cold tap water. Allow 30 minutes per pound. Change water every 30 minutes to keep surface of turkey cold.

When thawed, keep in refrigerator up to 4 days until ready to cook.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) has a nice and very informative fact sheet as well as a useful PDF file on the safe handling, cooking, Storage and re-heating of Turkey.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) A Consumer Guide to Safely Roasting a Turkey USDA’s information applies to any poultry, Turkey, Chicken, Duck, Goose and so on that you may plan on cooking and serving to your family.

For more information about food safety, call: USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline 1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854). 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday or
E-mail: mphotline.fsis@usda.gov Or “Ask Karen,” FSIS’ Web-based automated response system – available 24/7 at http://www.fsis.usda.gov.

Hints:
Allow 1 pound of turkey per person.

Thawing In the Refrigerator (40 °F or below)
Allow approximately 24 hours for every 4 to 5 pounds
4 to 12 pounds 1 to 3 days
12 to 16 pounds 3 to 4 days
16 to 20 pounds 4 to 5 days
20 to 24 pounds 5 to 6 days
Roasting Time
4 to 8 pounds (breast) 1½ to 3¼ hours
8 to 12 pounds 2¾ to 3 hours
12 to 14 pounds 3 to 3¾ hours
14 to 18 pounds 3¾ to 4¼ hours
18 to 20 pounds 4¼ to 4½ hours
20 to 24 pounds 4½ to 5 hours

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) Alternate methods to cook Turkey / poultry Grilling a Turkey, Covered Gas Grill, Covered Charcoal Grill, Smoking a Turkey, Deep Fat Frying a Turkey.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) Basics: Safe Cooking Turkey A PDF file. Great 1 page tip sheet on cooking Turkey / Poultry.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) Turkey Roasting Chart Everything you will ever need to know about Roasting your Turkey.
Hint:
Reheating Your Turkey
In the Oven
Set the oven temperature no lower than 325 °F.
Reheat turkey to an internal temperature of 165 °F. Use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature.
To keep the turkey moist, add a little broth or water and cover.

United States Department Of Agricultural (USDA) Safe Minimum Cooking Temperatures Use this chart and a food thermometer to ensure that meat, poultry, seafood, and other cooked foods reach a safe minimum internal temperature.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People. Safely Prepare Your Holiday Meal Important cooking information to providing Safe food preparation information.

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Turkey Cooking and Safety Hints

USDALet’s Talk Turkey—A Consumer Guide to Safely Roasting a Turkey You are the last line of defense in protecting your family from food borne bacteria that can sicken your family. Your best tool in food safety is a food thermometer. If you don’t have one Get One, most food markets and department stores will have an assortment for you to choose from.

Fresh Turkey Few people will know where to buy or how to select Fresh Turkey for this years Thanksgiving or Christmas meals. However birds bought from the grower or those that have raised their own birds need to know:

Fresh Turkeys
Allow 1 pound of turkey per person.
Buy kill and process your turkey only 1 to 2 days before you plan to cook it.
Keep it stored in the refrigerator at 40 degrees or lower temperature until you’re ready to cook it. Place your bird on a tray or in a pan to catch any juices that may leak.
Do not buy fresh pre-stuffed turkeys. If not handled properly, any harmful bacteria that may be in the stuffing can multiply very quickly and may not be killed when you bake or roast your Big Bird…
REMINDER: Remove the giblets from the turkey cavities after thawing. Cook separately.

Frozen Turkeys
Allow 1 pound of turkey per person.
Keep frozen until you’re ready to thaw it for roasting.
Turkeys can be kept frozen in the freezer indefinitely, however, for best quality, cook within 1 year.

Frozen Pre-Stuffed Turkeys
USDA recommends only buying frozen pre-stuffed turkeys that display the USDA or State mark of inspection on the packaging. These turkeys are safe because they have been processed under controlled conditions.

Thawing Your TurkeyThaw your turkey in the refrigerator.
Allow approximately 24 hours for every 4 to 5 pounds
4 to 12 pounds 1 to 3 days
12 to 16 pounds 3 to 4 days
16 to 20 pounds 4 to 5 days
20 to 24 pounds 5 to 6 days

Keep the turkey in its original wrapper. Place it on a tray or in a pan to catch any juices that may leak. A thawed turkey can remain in the refrigerator for 1 to 2 days. If necessary, a turkey that has been properly thawed in the refrigerator may be refrozen.

In Cold Water
Allow approximately 30 minutes per pound
4 to 12 pounds 2 to 6 hours
12 to 16 pounds 6 to 8 hours
16 to 20 pounds 8 to 10 hours
20 to 24 pounds 10 to 12 hours

Wrap your turkey securely, making sure the water is not able to leak through the wrapping. Submerge your wrapped turkey in cold tap water. Change the water every 30 minutes. Cook the turkey immediately after it is thawed. Do not refreeze.

Roasting Your Turkey
Set your oven temperature no lower than 325 °F.
Place your turkey or turkey breast on a rack in a shallow roasting pan.

For optimum safety, stuffing a turkey is not recommended. For more even cooking, it is recommended you cook your stuffing outside the bird in a casserole. Use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature of the stuffing. The stuffing must reach a safe minimum internal temperature of 165 °F.

If you choose to stuff your turkey, the ingredients can be prepared ahead of time, however, keep wet and dry ingredients separate. Chill all of the wet ingredients (butter/margarine, cooked celery and onions, broth, etc.). Mix wet and dry ingredients just before filling the turkey cavities. Fill the cavities loosely. Cook the turkey immediately. Use a food thermometer to make sure the center of the stuffing reaches a safe minimum internal temperature of 165 °F.

A whole turkey is safe when cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 165 °F as measured with a food thermometer. Check the internal temperature in the innermost part of the thigh and wing and the thickest part of the breast. For reasons of personal preference, consumers may choose to cook turkey to higher temperatures.

Even if your turkey has a “pop-up” temperature indicator, it is recommended that you also check the internal temperature of the turkey in the innermost part of the thigh and wing and the thickest part of the breast with a food thermometer. The minimum internal temperature should reach 165 °F for safety.

For quality, let the turkey stand for 20 minutes before carving to allow juices to set. The turkey will carve more easily. Remove all stuffing from the turkey cavities.

Timetables for Turkey Roasting (325 °F oven temperature)
Use the timetables below to determine how long to cook your turkey. These times are approximate. Always use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature of your turkey and stuffing.

Unstuffed
4 to 8 pounds (breast) 1½ to 3¼ hours
8 to 12 pounds 2¾ to 3 hours
12 to 14 pounds 3 to 3¾ hours
14 to 18 pounds 3¾ to 4¼ hours
18 to 20 pounds 4¼ to 4½ hours
20 to 24 pounds 4½ to 5 hours

Stuffed
4 to 6 pounds (breast) Not usually applicable
6 to 8 pounds (breast) 2½ to 3½ hours
8 to 12 pounds 3 to 3½ hours
12 to 14 pounds 3½ to 4 hours
14 to 18 pounds 4 to 4¼ hours
18 to 20 pounds 4¼ to 4¾ hours
20 to 24 pounds 4¾ to 5¼ hours

It is safe to cook a turkey from the frozen state. The cooking time will take at least 50 percent longer than recommended for a fully thawed turkey. Remember to remove the giblet packages during the cooking time.

Optional Cooking Hints
Add 1/2 cup of water to the bottom of the pan.

If your roasting pan does not have a lid, you may place a tent of heavy-duty aluminum foil over the turkey for the first 1 to 1-1/2 hours. This allows for maximum heat circulation, keeps the turkey moist, and reduces oven splatter. To prevent over browning, foil may also be placed over the turkey after it reaches the desired color.

For information on other methods for cooking a turkey, call the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline
1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854)

Storing Your Leftovers
Discard any turkey, stuffing, and gravy left out at room temperature longer than 2 hours, 1 hour in temperatures above 90 °F.
Divide leftovers into smaller portions. Refrigerate or freeze in covered shallow containers for quicker cooling.
Use refrigerated turkey, stuffing, and gravy within 3 to 4 days.
If freezing leftovers, use within 2 to 6 months.

Reheating Your Turkey
Cooked turkey may be eaten cold or reheated.
In the Oven Set the oven temperature no lower than 325 °F. Reheat turkey to an internal temperature of 165 °F. Use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature. To keep the turkey moist, add a little broth or water and cover.

In the Microwave Oven Cover your food and rotate it for even heating. Allow standing time. Check the internal temperature of your food with a food thermometer to make sure it reaches 165 °F.

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Advice on cooking your Thanksgiving bird

Q. Discovering a turkey from 1969 in his dad’s freezer, an Alabama man called the Talk-Line to ask about the best way to cook the 30+ year-old bird.
A. Butterball hot line recommended ‘buying a ‘younger’ bird.

Q. A few hours after his wife had give birth, a new dad called to make sure the turkey hadn’t been thawing too long while he’d been at the hospital.
A The Talk-Line staffer asked how much it weighed, to which the flustered father replied, ‘The turkey or the baby?’ After determining the turkey’s weight and thawing time, she assured him he would be able to deliver a safe, delicious Thanksgiving dinner.

What! A woman in her seventies, cooking Thanksgiving dinner for the first time, called for help because her mother said she was tired of cooking and it was time her daughter learned how to prepare the Thanksgiving meal.

Q. A gentleman called to tell the operator he cut his turkey in half with a chain saw and wanted to know if the oil from the chain would adversely affect the turkey.
A. ????

Q. A disappointed woman called wondering why her turkey had no breast meat.
A. After a conversation with a Talk-Line operator, it became apparent that the woman’s turkey was lying on the table upside down.

Q. With no answer. A lady from Colorado called about ‘how to thaw’ her frozen Butterball. She proudly shared the fact that her turkey was stored in a snow bank outside! It had snowed the night before and it then dawned on her that she didn’t have a clue which snow bank her turkey was in. At that point, the conversation was really over because she was now on a mission to go find her turkey.

Q. One caller had always cut the legs off the turkey before putting it in the oven thinking that was how you had to cook a turkey.
A. She later learned that the only reason her mom had been doing that was because their oven had been so small that that was the only way to get the bird into the oven!

Soapy turkey. A first time Thanksgiving chef called Turkey help line in tears Thanksgiving morning last year. She was so proud to have thawed the turkey successfully and continued to rinse the turkey with dish soap! The tears started flowing when the turkey wouldn’t stop sudsing. If only she called before she would have found out you don’t have to rinse the turkey just pat it dry with paper towels.

Q. One mom called in and told us about how her little girl had asked if they could slow-roast the turkey for three or four days because she liked how it made the house smell.
A. The experts at the Butterball Turkey Talk-Line told her that the turkey should only stay in the oven for a few hours and that it wasn’t a good idea to leave it cooking for four days!

Small oven solution. A gentleman called to tell how he wrapped his turkey in a towel and stomped on it several times, breaking the bones so it would fit in his roasting pan.

Happy Holidays

De Plan Comes Together

Two more days till Christmas Day.
I’m not sure what is on Michelle L’s Christmas dinner menu, but, grandson pulled out of the freezer the second half of the pig son-n-law and grandson butchered for Thanksgiving meal. I can only guess that pulled pork is on the menu.

I’m looking forward to spending time with all of my extended family, but, I will miss Grandson, granddaughter-n-law, great grandson and great granddaughter living in the east USA. I do hope they have a very merry Christmas and safe happy new year.

Michelle’s bamboo arrived and has been planted and mulched in with a thick layer of mulch to prevent the bamboo’s root system from freezing. I was much surprised and pleased that each one gallon pot contained 4 canes and were about three feet tall.

Wild flower seeds have began arriving. I’m now deep into my plan as to where and when this project will kick-off. Sad grin… After looking at the package of four O-clock seed, I have concluded that 1,600 four O-clock seed ‘may’ have been over kill. Maybe I will plant some of them along the bank of the draw what feeds rain water into the pound.

Merry Christmas and a safe Happy New Year

Thanksgiving Harvest

Historians tell us that out first recorded ‘Thanksgiving feast’ may have included Turkey, it most likely was dominated by Venison(deer meat), water fowl that included swan, ducks and geese as well as lobster, crabs and mussels.

Big Grin… grandson harvested a nice whitetail this past Saturday. I’m guessing it to be a yearling and cutout at about 75 pounds. Just a guess, I didn’t weigh the before or after weights.

Between hunters and state wildlife conservation programs, deer populations are at ‘in recorded’ historical numbers.

All is ready and that fat pig will be processed Wednesday morning.

We had our first ‘hard’ freeze Saturday morning. So gardens are finished. Fall garden clean up will be a high priority to complete before snow or ice storms bring most of my outdoor activity to an end.

For those of you that don’t know. Dressing is made using Corn Bread and flavored with sage. Grin .. if it’s not green with sage it is pig food not people food.

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Poultry – Red Crayola – Big Chief Notepad

Flock Planning is a must if you plan to be successful with your new or replacement birds.
If you can find birds locally this is a good thing. No postage cost, much less stress on your young chicks, ducklings goslings or keets. As a rule this gives you an opportunity to pick and choose your birds by breed and color markings.
Another plus to starting / replenishing your flock is that your new birds(chickens) will start laying in early spring, waterfowl may not lay before early summer.

Personally I like choosing birds that are at least a week old, two or more weeks of age is better. At this age the sick or cripple birds have been identified and eliminated from the healthy birds. I have enough hens to provide all the eggs we can eat, However, I enjoy watching my chickens and want to rebuild my Bantam flock.

Starting now allows you time to get your birds out of brooders and fully feathered before the first ‘real’ cold weather of winter.

My plan is to purchase 10 assorted straight run chicks. Past experience tells me I will not get more than 4 or 5 pullets out of 10 chicks. The plus side of this is I will have 4-5 hens that often go broody allowing me to hatch of next years replacement birds at almost no additional cost to ne. Bantams can successfully hatch 8 sometimes 10 bantam size eggs and 4 to 6 standard size chicken eggs.

Just because I have been babbling about chickens.
Don’t forget the same information applies to Ducks, Geese, Guineas and Turkey keets Poults.

Important Message It seems that I made a fowl call. The Proper term for a turkey chick is a Poult, not keet.
Thats the second time I have screwed up. I vidily remember doing that again in July 14, 1966 🙂

Country life is a good life.

Happy Fall gardening

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Lighting, Thunder And Much Needed Rain

Dogs, thunder and bright flashes of lighting shook me out of bed about 4.30 am Saturday morning. I received about 4 inches of very noisy rain. I think it has been 3 or maybe even 4 years since our last 4 inch rain. Winter wheat patches(fields) were in serious need of a soaking rain.

Those that have feeder calf’s will move their herds onto wheat pasture starting the first week of December. If wheat fields are not over stocked can stand grazing until the middle of March. After the middle of March feeder calf’s must be removed if the farmer plans on harvesting a good crop of wheat.

This rain will do little to kick start new growth on grass pastures. It’s simply to late in the year and the weather is to cool for new growth of warm weather grasses.
The good news is, most livestock watering ponds are at or near full capacity. Our pond is full again and I don’t think we lost many catfish due to low water levels before this rain.

The cattle prices are still in the insane territory. Last Thursday at the Apache livestock auction, certified impregnated heifers were selling at the low end for $2,800.00. Some of the better quality heifers were topping the $3,300.00 dollar mark. Un-frigging believable!

Ham, turkey, cornbread dressing and an assortment of pies. My favorite is pecan with a large scoop of vanilla ice cream.

Have a happy, safe Thanksgiving Day.

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So You Want A Home Poultry Flock!

poultry Chickens are easy to raise and keep. They are mostly quite (No Roosters Please) and are easy to handle. Most breeds are non-flyers. With so many breeds available you are sure to find a breed that appeals to your eye.

Ducks Are easy to raise and keep on a small homestead or in a backyard. They are quit and easy to handle. Ducks breeds range from the tiny ornamental breeds to the heavy meat breeds. Most duck breeds are non-flyers.

Geese Are easy to raise and some breeds can reach a mature weight of 20 pounds or more. Geese are noisy and the males can become aggressive. Most geese after reaching adult weight are non-flyers. Geese are not recommended for gardeners/homesteaders with small children.

Turkey Require more hands on attention while small. Once they are 4 to 6 weeks of age they are easy to raise. Some breeds of turkeys can reach a mature weight of 45 pounds. Turkeys can be noisy and toms are often aggressive. Adult turkeys are generally non-flyers. Small children and turkeys do not go together well!

Guinea fowl are easy to raise active and alert birds. Smiling.. they make great watch dogs. Yes they are noisy birds and are not easy to handle. They are flyers. Guineas will try to roost on the highest limb of your tallest tree if allowed to roam free. To keep them in your your run the run must have a covered top. Guineas are excellent at insect control. Ticks will never be found on a homestead if you have a small flock of guineas.

Buying day old birds. Is the cheapest and in my opinion the best way to establish your homestead/backyard poultry flock. A $2.00 or $3.00 chick beats the heck out of a $12.00 or $15.00 pullet any day of the week.

However to raise day old chicks you will need a brooder of some kind. Unless you plan to raise chicks ever year or two it may not be worth the money, time and effort to raise your own day old chicks into mature birds.

I have seen brooders made from everything that can be found around the house or farm. Cardboard boxes, large plastic storage containers as well as many well built wood and wire brooders. Brooder size is important. Your brooder must be large enough for the number of chick you buy as well as having room for water and feed containers.
After you have decided what you will use as a brooder you will need something to cover your brooder top to prevent chick from jumping out of your brooder. Don’t be fooled by their size. Chicks can jump much higher than you think they can.

Last but not least. You must provide a heat source to keep your chicks from getting chilled and dieing. Use a good quality thermometer and set your heat source so the temperature 1/2 inches off the floor is about 97 or 98 degrees. Low temperatures can chill and even kill your chicks and will also hinder digestion of their food. Brooding Temperatures for Poultry Thank You ‘Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Development’ website.
* Don’t panic about getting your brooder temperature perfect, if your brooder is large the chicks will move closer or move away from your heat source seeking their comfort zone.

Hint 100 or 150 watt ceramic emitter heat bulb – Cost about 12.00 to 15.00 each.
*The main advantage of ceramic heat emitting bulbs is that they will last 4 or 5 times as long as ‘standard’ heat lamp bulbs.
150 to 250 watt heat lamp bulbs – cost about $3.00 to $5.00 each.

Murry McMurry hatchery Is a great source for full color pictures and a short description of many breeds of poultry.

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